THE FOUNDATION OF OUR ECOSYSTEM IS ROOTED IN NATIVE PLANTS. BEE SUSTAINABLE. PLANT NATIVES.
Native plants have co-evolved with native insects and wildlife; they are deeply dependent on one another. Plants provide food and shelter to insects, birds and other small animals, which, in turn support larger predators. Native plants are fundamental stepping stones of a healthy ecosystem.
Introducing native plants to your garden or land can bring many seasons of delight and discovery. Their many merits, though, exceed their virtues of beauty, resilience and appeal to birds and pollinators.
Clean Water: Because of the deep root system of most native plants, they act both as a sponge and filter. They help water soak down into the soil and filter out excess nutrients and pollutants, improving water quality.
Ecosystem Restoration: Tallgrass prairies are North America’s most threatened major ecosystem, with about 99% plowed up or paved over since the 1830s. By planting native species, you are restoring ecosystems and preserving countless species that might otherwise be lost forever.
Clean Air: Like forests, prairies and meadows sequester pollutants and carbon from the atmosphere. Even small plantings can help filter the air around your home, and large plantings can help to mitigate climate change.
Resource Conservation: Once established, native plants can save you time and money because they require little or no irrigation, fertilizer, pruning or mowing.
Invasive Species: Outside of their native environments, some plants will aggressively out-compete others because they lack natural checks and balances like pests and predators. Some of our worst non-native invaders – Buckthorn, Honey-suckle, Dame’s Rocket, and Garlic Mustard – were first planted in gardens. By choosing natives, you can help prevent further habitat loss.
Healthy Soil: The dance between native plants and animals created some of the most fertile soil on Earth, making the American Midwest the “Breadbasket to the World.” Native plants prevent soil erosion, create top soil and build fertility.
NATIVE FLORA BENEFITS NATIVE FAUNA
Rusty Patched Bumblebee (Bombus affinis): The Rusty Patched Bumblebee is a federally-endangered species. This insect is one of the many on the brink of extinction. Worldwide, it is estimated we have lost 45% of invertebrates over the past 40 years.
American Goldfinch (Spinus tristis): About 95% of all terrestrial birds feed their young insects. A single clutch of American Goldfinches will eat thousands of caterpillars before they leave the nest. Seeds are another important component of a bird’s diet. More than 300 trees, shrubs, and vines in North America have small fruits that depend on birds for seed dispersal.
Thirteen-lined ground Squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus): Prey animals like birds, small mammals, reptiles, and amphibians rely on insects and native plants as an important part of their diet. To protect themselves against predators, prey have developed a number of defense mechanisms. The unique markings on the Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrel help to keep it camouflaged, hidden in its environment.
American Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes fulvus): Predators, like this American Red Fox, are an essential part of our ecosystem because they eat other animals, which sends a ripple effect through the food web called a “trophic cascade”. Because they eat other animals predators affect the populations of prey animals, which in turn affects plant populations.
American Carrion Beetle(Necrophila americana): Essential nutrient cycling is expected by fungus and scavenging insects like carrion beetles.
A few square feet or several acres, we can all make a difference… Hope grows in every backyard.
Did you plant a native seed mix recently?MAKE SURE YOU MOW THIS SPRING! Mowing your newly-planted site the first growing season is referred to as maintenance mowing. Right now you probably see a lot of weeds, some juvenile prairie grasses, and wildflower seedlings. Some native annuals from your seed mix, like Black-eyed Susan, may be about to bloom, but don’t be swayed, it’s time to mow!
Regular summer mowing will prevent quick-growing weeds from shading new native seedlings and dropping additional seeds on the site. Mowing will not harm new native plants!
If your first-year planting looks like this, mowing is overdue! You may be encouraged by the Black-eyed Susan or Daisy Fleabane and not want to mow, but also pictured, Canada Goldenrod and Queen Anne’s Lace, are weeds and need to be mowed, along with the native “pioneer species”, to allow light in.
Set your mower to a high setting; 4-6″ on most mowers. Mow as frequently as your site demands; usually that is when growth reaches 8-10 inches or weeds want to flower.
Here is a 1st year planting next to a 3rd year prairie. We practiced maintenance mowing multiple times during the spring-summer to allow light to infiltrate and to prevent weeds from going to seed. Mowing will not harm young native plants. You can usually stop mowing at the end of the first season. If weeds are thick in the beginning of the second season, mow or spot-mow once or twice.
Hand-held string trimmers are ideal for small areas or steep slopes.
With cooperation from grassroots activists, non-profit organizations, stage agencies, the University of Minnesota, and the legislature, a first-of-its kind grant program was created to incentivize habitat restoration in residential areas. The newly created “Lawns to Legumes” program set aside approximately $900,000 from the Minnesota Environment and Natural Resources Trust Fund to assist homeowners in the effort to install trees, wildflowers, and other native plantings on their properties.
The goal of the program is to protect at-risk pollinators including the Minnesota State Bee, the federally endangered Rusty Patched Bumble Bee. A once common species, the population of the Rusty Patched Bumble Bee has declined by nearly 90% in the last 20 years. It is likely to only be present in 0.1% of its native range at risk of extinction. This species faces the same threats that many other pollinators and wildlife face, including habitat loss, disease, pesticide use, and climate change.
Pleasant Valley in Winona, Minnesota was selected as a Demonstration Neighborhood in the Lawns to Legumes program. Lawns to Legumes Demonstration Neighborhoods establish community projects on residential properties intended to enhance pollinator habitat in key corridors, raise awareness for residential pollinator protection, and showcase best practices. A select group of homeowners will have 90% of their native plant project paid for with the grant – whether they are planting a single tree or restoring a large prairie. There is no minimum size requirement to participate in the program because even relatively small plantings of native flowers and grasses can help pollinators by building and connecting important habitat corridors.
The Pleasant Valley Pollinator Corridor connects the City of Winona to the forested bluff lands in the Pleasant Valley Watershed. This neighborhood is located in a biodiversity hotspot known as “The Driftless Region” which encompasses parts of SE Minnesota, SW Wisconsin, NE Iowa, and NW Illinois. This region contains the highest number of different plants and animal species in the Upper Midwest, as well as the highest percentage of species that are threatened or endangered in the Upper Midwest.
A team of dedicated locals has helped implement the program in Winona with the non-profit Healthy Lake Winona. These folks have been working throughout the pandemic to connect interested people with grant funds, and educate them about plant selection, installation, and maintenance. This group has also created partnerships with 9 other supporters, including the Winona County Soil and Water Conservation District, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Prairie Moon Nursery. By participating in the grant programs, residents will help pollinators, create habitat, make connections, build community, and inspire change.
“If half of American lawns were replaced with native plants, we would create the equivalent of a 20 million acre national park, nine times bigger than Yellowstone or 100 times bigger than Shenandoah National Park.”
– Doug Tallamy
The Minnesota Lawns to Legumes program is an inspirational model of bringing habitat restoration to residential areas. Together, we can create more programs like this across America, encouraging and incentivizing habitat restoration in neighborhood HOAs, local zoning ordinances, and grant programs.
As we understand more about our ecological interconnectedness, we have an opportunity to make choices that heal and regenerate the land. Each and every one of us has an important role to play in stewarding this land, and it starts right in your own backyard.
GIVE & GETWITH EVERY EARTH DAY ORDER Now through April 22
• Order online and we give toward a WORTHY CAUSE • Get a FREE STICKER with every order • Get $5.00 OFF your order – use code: BUZZ at checkout •
Your unwavering support of native plants allows us to donate to worthwhile environmental groups every year;your online purchase makes a difference.
ABOUT IN DEFENSE OF PLANTS: From the smallest duckweed to the tallest redwood, the botanical world is full of amazing stories and In Defense of Plants is here to tell them with engaging blogs and podcasts.
Each week, author and host Matt, sits down with experts in plant biology, ecology, evolution, and conservation for discussions about the amazing world of plants. Whether the topic is the ecological importance of oak trees or the role of horticulture in saving plants from extinction, In Defense of Plants explores the botanical world to help cure “plant blindness,” the under-appreciation of the flora all around us.
SUBSCRIBE TOIN DEFENSE OF PLANTS PODCAST AT APPLE PODCAST OR WHEREVER YOU GET YOUR PODCASTS.
This Earth Day we are proud to support In Defense of Plants If you love plants as much as we do, we know you’ll love the podcast and blog!
To Our Customers & Friends, Prairie Moon Nursery is very grateful to continue to be able to supply the joy of native plants during this time when we are cooped up at home more than usual. With the nursery industry seeing record demand for seeds and plants, we are happy to report that we have been able to process your orders with precision and speed.
The health and safety of our community continues to be at the forefront of the decisions we are making. We are still diligently following science-based recommendations and the guidance of public health officials, and are strongly encouraging all of our employees to be vaccinated as soon as it’s available for them.
Some members of our team are working from home full time. For our employees that are continuing to come out to the nursery, we require masks, practice social distancing, and sanitize our workspaces daily. We have also taken an extra step and adjusted work schedules to minimize contact across teams.
We would like to address a few questions that you may have about your native plant order:
Are you experiencing shipping delays? No. We are continuing to ship out orders in an efficient, timely manner.
Are you experiencing a lack of inventory? SEED: There are no significant shortages of seed packets. With that said, harvests on perennial native plants can be variable from year to year, and bulk seed availability may be limited for some species. PLANTS: As you may already know, it is not uncommon for Prairie Moon to sell out of potted plants before the spring shipping season arrives. Although every year we grow more and more plants with new gardeners in mind, live plants are in very high demand. Be sure to order plants as soon as possible because we are likely to sell out very early this year. Please know that we are doing all we can to get even more native plants to you by expanding our facilities in 2021.
I live near Prairie Moon and would like to pick up an order. Should I change my plans? As a reminder, we are not a retail garden center; we are a mail-order nursery. To save shipping costs, local customers have been able to pick up orders in the past. At this time, we would prefer to ship your order to minimize the number of people coming to the nursery. If you have already arranged a plant pick up, we will contact you.
Will you be hosting Summer Tours? With disappointment, we cancelled all 2020 summer tours due to Covid-19. We are hoping to be able to offer socially distanced, outdoor summer tours for 2021, but we feel it is too early in the year to know if that’s something we are going to be able to offer. Please visit our website for updates as the tours draw near.
*Free shipping offer applies to retail, online seed orders, shipping within the contiguous US, that reach $100 or more. Custom Seed Mixes get bulk seed pricing so do not qualify. Eco-Grass seed always ships free so does not count toward the $100 minimum. No promo code is needed, look for the FREE shipping in your online cart. If live plants are included with your online seed order, a plant shipping fee will still apply – see plant shipping fees below.
The seeds of many native plants have built-in dormancy mechanisms that protect them from germinating before killing frosts or in times of drought. In the wild, seeds will lie dormant until the proper conditions for growth occur. But in cultivation, the successful gardener must become familiar with several simple pre-sowing seed treatment methods that will unlock the dormancy mechanism and stimulate quicker, more consistent germination.
We have developed the following seed germination codes to help you successfully grow the native seed sold in our catalog. These seed-treatment suggestions have been compiled from our own experience, available literature, and feedback from other growers and customers. These are only suggestions and not the definitive source of germination information. If your experience reveals successful methods other than these, please let us know.
Until you are ready to plant or apply pre-sowing treatment, seed should be stored in an open container in a cool, dry place, or in a sealed (airtight) container under refrigeration (33–40°F). Avoid rapid or frequent temperature changes and protect against rodents.
In a garden setting, sow seeds shallowly; no deeper than the width of the seed. Keep seedlings carefully weeded. Periodic watering is helpful to establish seedlings. If seed does not germinate the first year, don’t give up; germination may occur the second year or even later.
MATCH THE GERMINATION CODE(S) ON YOUR SEED PACKAGE TO THESE INSTRUCTIONS:
A:No pre-treatment is necessary: Seed should germinate upon sowing in a warm location. Germination code A species can be found here.
B: Hot water treatment: This hot water treatment helps break open the hard seed coat. This may happen naturally with freeze/thaw cycles, but better germination can be expected if hot water treatment is done before fall planting outside, or artificial cold-moist stratification in a fridge (Germination Code C). Germination code B species can be found here.
C (# of stratifying days): Cold, moist stratification needed:To naturally stratify seed, plant outdoors late fall on a weed-free site and allow seed to overwinter. To artificially stratify seed, place seed and medium in a labeled, sealed plastic bag and store in a refrigerator (33-40°F). Stratification medium could be a damp paper towel, coffee filter, sand, vermiculite, or other horticultural-use medium.
We recommend mixing equal parts sand and seed, or slightly more sand than seed. Whatever stratifying medium you choose, be sure to moisten the mixture slowly to a damp but not wet consistency. You should not be able to squeeze any excess water out of the medium.
Stratify for the number of days indicated in parentheses. If two months stratification is required, C(60), one month may work for many species if time is a constraint. Some seeds may sprout in the storage bag. If this occurs with more than a few seeds, plant immediately. Germination code C species can be foundhere.
D: Seeds are very small or need light to naturally break dormancy and germinate:Seed requiring this treatment should be surface-sown. No soil cover, or just a dusting of soil, should be applied. If grown in outdoor beds, sow stratified (if required) seed on a level surface. Cover with a single layer of burlap or cotton sheet to help retain moisture at the soil surface. Remove cover after germination. Do not let soil dry out until seedlings are established. Shading with a window screen set 12” above the soil during the first season will also help prevent drying. If sowing seeds in containers, water from the bottom as necessary. Germination code D species can be found here.
E: In order to germinate, seeds need a warm, moist period (summer) followed by a cold, moist period (winter):Sow outdoors in spring and allow one full year for germination. To artificially start this stratification process, mix seeds with horticultural-use medium, place mixture in a labeled, sealed, plastic bag and store in a warm place (about 80°F) for 60–90 days. Then place in your refrigerator (33–40°F) for 60–90 days before sowing. Germination code E species can be found here.
F: Seeds need a cold, moist period (winter) followed by a warm, moist period (summer) followed by a 2nd cold, moist period: Sow outdoors and allow 2 years or longer to germinate. To artificially start this stratification process, follow the instructions for Germination Code C for 60-90 days, then store in a warm (about 80°F) place for 60-90 days, followed by a 2nd cold period in the refrigerator. Germination code F species can be found here.
G: Seeds germinate most successfully in cool soil:Sow seeds in late fall (after hard frost) or early spring. Germination code G species can be foundhere.
H: Seeds need scarification: These species require weakening of the seed coat in order to come out of dormancy. Scarify by rubbing seed between two sheets of medium-grit sandpaper. The goal is to abrade seed coats – stop if seeds are being crushed. Scarification should be done before stratification (Germination Code C) if needed. Fall or winter sown seed should not be scarified to prevent the chance of premature germination and winter kill. Germination code H species can be found here.
I: Legume (member of the pea family): Most legume species harbor beneficial bacteria called rhizobia on their roots. Genus-specific strains of this bacterium called inoculum can aid in the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen and improve long-term health of native plant communities. Inoculum is naturally occurring in most soils and additional amendments are not needed. However, inoculum can be purchased from us for most legume generahere. Germination code I species can be found here.
J: We remove the hulls from these legume seeds: This gives more seeds per ounce and greatly improves germination. If you have dehulled seed from another source, treat as in Germination Code H. Germination code J species can be foundhere.
K: Hemiparasitic species which requires a host plant: Good hosts for many hemiparasitic species include low-growing grasses and sedges like Blue Grama, Pennsylvania Sedge, Little Bluestem, and June Grass. With a knife, make a 2” deep cut at the base of the host plant. Sow seed in the cut, making sure seed is not more than 1/8” deep. If host is transplanted at sowing time, the cut is not needed because damaged roots will be available for attachment by the hemiparasite. You may also try sowing hemiparasitic and host species seeds together at the same time. To add hemiparasitic species to existing sites, scatter seed on soil surface (rake in if seed is large) in late fall. Germination code K species can be found here.
L: Plant fresh seed or keep moist: Refrigerate until planting or starting other treatment. Germination code L species can be foundhere.
M: Best planted outdoors in the fall:Artificial stratification may not work well. Germination code M species can be found here.
O: Impermeable seed coat:Nick seed coat with knife, and soak in water overnight before planting. Germination code O species can be found here.
Winter, even when snow covers your site, is a great time to sow native seed. Planting in winter gives Mother Nature time to stratify seeds through natural freeze-thaw cycles. This stratification process is needed for most wildflower seed to break dormancy and germinate in the spring. Any day through late February on which you can walk around your prepared planting site with relative ease and comfort is potentially a great day to broadcast seed.
You can sow your seed right on top of the snow, but the key is to sow on the right KIND of snow. Plant your seed on fluffy, damp, packable snow. This way, when you sow your seed it will slightly sinks into the snow. Avoid sowing seed on top of icy, crusty snow or it will blow around easily in the wind.
Winter sowing into snow also makes it easier to see where you spread the seed so you get a nice even distribution of your mix.
Don’t put off your seeding until next year; grab your mittens and go snow sowing!
Before you sow any seed, you must prepare your site. Visit our site prep guide here.
For more about how to hand sow a seed mix, see this how-to guide.
Neonicotinoids (neo-nih-CAH-tin-oids) are systemic chemicals, which are absorbed into the plant’s vascular system, leaving the entire plant toxic to both target and non-target insects. Systemic chemicals affect the central nervous system of insects, resulting in paralysis and death. This class of insecticides is particularly harmful to bees as accumulated neonicotinoids are consumed by adults or stored, concentrated, and fed to developing young.
Prairie Moon has never used these insecticides and is proudly neonicotinoid-FREE.
These days we are hearing more reports of Honey Bee die-offs and Colony Collapse Disorder, though the European Honey Bee is but one species of invertebrates facing a precarious future. Native insect species all over the world are subjected to a deadly combination of stresses (with undiscovered species disappearing completely before being properly studied or understood). These stresses are widespread and stem directly from human activity. Habitat loss, fragmented ecosystems, alien organisms, industrial farming practices, climate change and the proliferation of lawns are a few major sources of invertebrate decline. Pesticides, which indiscriminately kill insects by design, pose the most immediate danger to invertebrates worldwide.
Following registration in the mid 1990’s, neonicotinoid use has grown to make this the most widely used class of insecticides in the world. While large-scale agricultural applications account for the greatest levels of cumulative harm (chronic lethal exposure), landscaping and garden use result in higher rates of death (acute lethal exposure) in non-target insects. The most noteable victims of neonicotinoid exposure are pollinator species, which perform a key role in over one-third of our food system. This disproportionate frequency of non-target insect mortality is largely due to the abundance of unregulated insecticides available in retail stores, and a lack of understanding by those who use them.
Neonicotinoids are systemic chemicals, which are absorbed into the plant’s vascular system, leaving the entire plant toxic to both target and non-target insects. Neonicotinoids exhibit long periods of toxicity, with two of the most widely used insecticides persisting in soil at toxic levels for many months and even years. Metabolites (the breakdown product of complex substances) and synergisms (combined substances which result in a greater potency than the original) could make neonicotinoids even more toxic and persistent than is already known.
The accumulation of neonicotinoids may adversely affect many invertebrates beyond those targeted through the initial application. Routes of unintended exposure can originate from spray drift, residual contact, particle exposure (from mechanized planting of treated seeds), as well as exposure through contaminated soil, nesting resources, water, pollen and nectar. Pollen and nectar contamination is especially worrisome for bees as accumulated neonicotinoids may be stored, concentrated, and fed to developing young. Adults can also suffer from chronic and acute exposure, through foraging and ingestion of toxic nectar. The sublethal effects on Honey Bees range from inhibited flight, navigation and taste, in addition to a decrease in learning and foraging ability. Sublethal effects on native bees, such as bumblebees and solitary bees, include reduced food consumption and reproduction success, decreased worker survival, reduced foraging and delayed development.
Environmental stresses are pushing native pollinators to the edge of ecological collapse, with cascading effects seen globally. You can begin helping pollinators right away by conserving and promoting native habitat, gardening with native plants and avoiding insecticide use. Your contributions are essential to curbing the decline of native pollinators and invertebrates. Over one-third of your food supply hangs in the balance.
Reference sources for information on this page were publications of the Xerces Society. View their special reports on Neonicotinoids here.
SITE PREPARATION IS AN ESSENTIAL STEP TO A SUCCESSFUL NATIVE PLANTING
Proper site preparation will greatly reduce competition from undesirable species and allow for better establishment of slow-growing perennials. Most sites will require 1 full season of site preparation starting in the spring and ending in the fall. If you have a small site located in a well-manicured lawn, site preparation may be possible in a single afternoon. The most common methods are described in detail below.
Do not underestimate the weed seed bank of your soil. The weed seed bank holds the accrued deposits of dormant weed seeds that have been falling on the soil, sometimes for many years. Weed seed dormancy can be broken by even slight soil disturbance, a change in soil temperature, or a brief exposure to light. These events can cause a flush of new weeds to germinate on a site that previously appeared to be clean. Ideally, site preparation will eliminate the existing plants on site, but also spur the germination of the weed seed bank so they, too, can be eliminated. Although it is tempting to cut corners during this step, the time invested in site preparation is well spent.
This method is great for homeowners looking to convert part of their lawn into garden beds. A sod remover is a gas-powered, or hand-held tool that will slice off the top few inches of grass and soil. They are available to rent at many hardware and home improvement stores. Although this method is labor intensive, it can allow for very quick site preparation. Sod removal is not recommended for large areas or sites with a lot of weeds.
SMOTHERING OR SOLARIZATION:
Smothering weeds can be an effective site prep method without the use of any chemicals or special equipment. The idea behind smothering is simple; covering the soil surface for an extended period will kill unwanted plants underneath due to heat and/or lack of light. Common smothering materials include industrial-weight tarps, black or clear plastic, wood paneling, and cardboard covered with wood mulch. It is important to be sure to secure the smothering material with heavy rocks, pallets, or by burying the edges. This will prevent wind from blowing the material off and discourage tenacious plants from pushing the material up from the ground. On smaller sites, cardboard is a good approach. To find large pieces, check your local appliance store to see if they have recycling you can reuse. On larger sites, plastic from tarps or hoop houses can be used. If you live in an agricultural region, you may be able to salvage discarded plastic from local farms.
While smothering will eliminate surface plants, a large weed seed bank may remain in the soil. Once an initial smothering period has occurred, removing the cover from the site will allow weeds from the soil seed bank to germinate. Replace the cover to kill the newly germinated seedlings. This on-again off-again cycle of germination and smothering can be utilized to prepare even the weediest pastures.
Smother/Solarize Example: Timed intervals of 4 to 5 weeks “on” and 1 to 2 weeks “off” can allow multiple waves of weed seeds to germinate before being killed during the following cycle of smothering. Some weeds need to be covered for two years. Smothering a lawn takes less time; usually it can be killed in two months by a close mowing before covering.
REPEATED SHALLOW CULTIVATION:
Repeated cultivation is a good option for large sites, especially on flat, organically managed land. The key for success using this method is understanding that soil disturbance exposes seeds in the soil seed bank and is followed by more weed growth. To prepare a site with cultivation, soil disturbance must be repeated and continue until the end of the growing season.
Mechanical cultivation is usually accomplished with a tractor and a disc. Shallow discing should be timed to eliminate freshly germinated weed seedlings; once your site greens up after cultivation, disc again. Some sites may require 2 years of cultivation, particularly those with invasive or perennial weeds.
We at Prairie Moon are proud of our organic farming legacy, but we also view the responsible and judicious use of herbicides as an effective tool for native ecosystem establishment. Always read labels on herbicide products and use caution when working with these chemicals.
Herbicide is most effective over a full growing season. Depending on the weed problem on your site, short-term herbicide use as the only form of site prep can yield less-desirable results.
Site preparation is the first step in a multi-step process. Establishing a successful native prairie from seed is a labor of love and patience. Most who have been through it will praise the process, the thrill of discovery, and the joy of transforming a space into a healthy ecosystem. For more details on the next steps check out Growing Your Prairie
YEAR 1: SITE PREP AND SEEDING
The first growing season should be dedicated to site preparation, a crucial first step to a successful planting. On this site, herbicide was applied three times spring through fall. After site preparation is complete, seed can be sown.
YEAR 2: MOWING
Keeping the site mowed to 4-8” during the first year of growth will control any remaining weeds, allow sunlight to reach the slow-growing perennials and promote strong root growth.
YEAR 3: PIONEER FLUSH
The season after planting there will only be a few native species that flower. This stage is known as the Pioneer Flush. It can take 3-5 years after planting for most perennials to bloom for the first time.
YEAR 4: DIVERSITY OF BLOOMS
As time goes on, more and more perennial wildflowers will start to bloom.