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The Circle of Life

THE FOUNDATION OF OUR ECOSYSTEM IS ROOTED IN NATIVE PLANTS.
BEE SUSTAINABLE. PLANT NATIVES.

Native plants have co-evolved with native insects and wildlife; they are deeply dependent on one another. Plants provide food and shelter to insects, birds and other small animals, which, in turn support larger predators. Native plants are fundamental stepping stones of a healthy ecosystem.

Introducing native plants to your garden or land can bring many seasons of delight and discovery. Their many merits, though, exceed their virtues of beauty, resilience and appeal to birds and pollinators.

Clean Water: Because of the deep root system of most native plants, they act both as a sponge and filter. They help water soak down into the soil and filter out excess nutrients and pollutants, improving water quality.

Ecosystem Restoration:
Tallgrass prairies are North America’s most threatened major ecosystem, with about 99% plowed up or paved over since the 1830s. By planting native species, you are restoring ecosystems and preserving countless species that might otherwise be lost forever.

Clean Air:
Like forests, prairies and meadows sequester pollutants and carbon from the atmosphere. Even small plantings can help filter the air around your home, and large plantings can help to mitigate climate change.

Resource Conservation:
Once established, native plants can save you time and money because they require little or no irrigation, fertilizer, pruning or mowing.

Invasive Species:
Outside of their native environments, some plants will aggressively out-compete others because they lack natural checks and balances like pests and predators. Some of our worst non-native invaders – Buckthorn, Honey-suckle, Dame’s Rocket, and Garlic Mustard – were first planted in gardens. By choosing natives, you can help prevent further habitat loss.

Healthy Soil:
The dance between native plants and animals created some of the most fertile soil on Earth, making the American Midwest the “Breadbasket to the World.” Native plants prevent soil erosion, create top soil and build fertility.

NATIVE FLORA BENEFITS NATIVE FAUNA

Rusty Patched Bumblebee (Bombus affinis): The Rusty Patched Bumblebee is a federally-endangered species. This insect is one of the many on the brink of extinction. Worldwide, it is estimated we have lost 45% of invertebrates over the past 40 years.

American Goldfinch (Spinus tristis): About 95% of all terrestrial birds feed their young insects. A single clutch of American Goldfinches will eat thousands of caterpillars before they leave the nest. Seeds are another important component of a bird’s diet. More than 300 trees, shrubs, and vines in North America have small fruits that depend on birds for seed dispersal.

Thirteen-lined ground Squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus): Prey animals like birds, small mammals, reptiles, and amphibians rely on insects and native plants as an important part of their diet. To protect themselves against predators, prey have developed a number of defense mechanisms. The unique markings on the Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrel help to keep it camouflaged, hidden in its environment.

American Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes fulvus): Predators, like this American Red Fox, are an essential part of our ecosystem because they eat other animals, which sends a ripple effect through the food web called a “trophic cascade”. Because they eat other animals predators affect the populations of prey animals, which in turn affects plant populations.

American Carrion Beetle (Necrophila americana): Essential nutrient cycling is expected by fungus and scavenging insects like carrion beetles.

A few square feet or several acres, we can all make a difference…
Hope grows in every backyard.

Are You Mowing Your 1st Year Prairie?

Did you plant a native seed mix recently? MAKE SURE YOU MOW THIS SPRING!
Mowing your newly-planted site the first growing season is referred to as maintenance mowing. Right now you probably see a lot of weeds, some juvenile prairie grasses, and wildflower seedlings. Some native annuals from your seed mix, like Black-eyed Susan, may be about to bloom, but don’t be swayed, it’s time to mow!

Regular summer mowing will prevent quick-growing weeds from shading new native seedlings and dropping additional seeds on the site. Mowing will not harm new native plants!


If your first-year planting looks like this, mowing is overdue! You may be encouraged by the Black-eyed Susan or Daisy Fleabane and not want to mow, but also pictured, Canada Goldenrod and Queen Anne’s Lace, are weeds and need to be mowed, along with the native “pioneer species”, to allow light in.


Set your mower to a high setting; 4-6″ on most mowers. Mow as frequently as your site demands; usually that is when growth reaches 8-10 inches or weeds want to flower.


Here is a 1st year planting next to a 3rd year prairie. We practiced maintenance mowing multiple times during the spring-summer to allow light to infiltrate and to prevent weeds from going to seed. Mowing will not harm young native plants. You can usually stop mowing at the end of the first season. If weeds are thick in the beginning of the second season, mow or spot-mow once or twice.


Hand-held string trimmers are ideal for small areas or steep slopes.

CHANGE STARTS IN YOUR BACKYARD: The Pleasant Valley Pollinator Corridor Story

With cooperation from grassroots activists, non-profit organizations, stage agencies, the University of Minnesota, and the legislature, a first-of-its kind grant program was created to incentivize habitat restoration in residential areas. The newly created “Lawns to Legumes” program set aside approximately $900,000 from the Minnesota Environment and Natural Resources Trust Fund to assist homeowners in the effort to install trees, wildflowers, and other native plantings on their properties. 

The goal of the program is to protect at-risk pollinators including the Minnesota State Bee, the federally endangered Rusty Patched Bumble Bee. A once common species, the population of the Rusty Patched Bumble Bee has declined by nearly 90% in the last 20 years. It is likely to only be present in 0.1% of its native range at risk of extinction. This species faces the same threats that many other pollinators and wildlife face, including habitat loss, disease, pesticide use, and climate change.


Pleasant Valley in Winona, Minnesota was selected as a Demonstration Neighborhood in the Lawns to Legumes program. Lawns to Legumes Demonstration Neighborhoods establish community projects on residential properties intended to enhance pollinator habitat in key corridors, raise awareness for residential pollinator protection, and showcase best practices. A select group of homeowners will have 90% of their native plant project paid for with the grant – whether they are planting a single tree or restoring a large prairie. There is no minimum size requirement to participate in the program because even relatively small plantings of native flowers and grasses can help pollinators by building and connecting important habitat corridors. 

The Pleasant Valley Pollinator Corridor connects the City of Winona to the forested bluff lands in the Pleasant Valley Watershed. This neighborhood is located in a biodiversity hotspot known as “The Driftless Region” which encompasses parts of SE Minnesota, SW Wisconsin, NE Iowa, and NW Illinois. This region contains the highest number of different plants and animal species in the Upper Midwest, as well as the highest percentage of species that are threatened or endangered in the Upper Midwest. 

A team of dedicated locals has helped implement the program in Winona with the non-profit Healthy Lake Winona. These folks have been working throughout the pandemic to connect interested people with grant funds, and educate them about plant selection, installation, and maintenance. This group has also created partnerships with 9 other supporters, including the Winona County Soil and Water Conservation District, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Prairie Moon Nursery. By participating in the grant programs, residents will help pollinators, create habitat, make connections, build community, and inspire change. 

“If half of American lawns were replaced with native plants, we would create the equivalent of a 20 million acre national park, nine times bigger than Yellowstone or 100 times bigger than Shenandoah
National Park.”

– Doug Tallamy
 

The Minnesota Lawns to Legumes program is an inspirational model of bringing habitat restoration to residential areas. Together, we can create more programs like this across America, encouraging and incentivizing habitat restoration in neighborhood HOAs, local zoning ordinances, and grant programs. 

As we understand more about our ecological interconnectedness, we have an opportunity to make choices that heal and regenerate the land. Each and every one of us has an important role to play in stewarding this land, and it starts right in your own backyard.

EARTH DAY 2021: WE ARE PROUD TO SUPPORT IN DEFENSE OF PLANTS

GIVE & GET WITH EVERY EARTH DAY ORDER
Now through April 22

• Order online and we give toward a WORTHY CAUSE • Get a FREE STICKER with every order • Get $5.00 OFF your order – use code: BUZZ at checkout •

     Your unwavering support of native plants allows us to donate to worthwhile environmental groups every year; your online purchase makes a difference.

ABOUT IN DEFENSE OF PLANTS:
From the smallest duckweed to the tallest redwood, the botanical world is full of amazing stories and In Defense of Plants is here to tell them with engaging blogs and podcasts.

Each week, author and host Matt, sits down with experts in plant biology, ecology, evolution, and conservation for discussions about the amazing world of plants. Whether the topic is the ecological importance of oak trees or the role of horticulture in saving plants from extinction, In Defense of Plants explores the botanical world to help cure “plant blindness,” the under-appreciation of the flora all around us.

SUBSCRIBE TO IN DEFENSE OF PLANTS PODCAST AT APPLE PODCAST OR WHEREVER YOU GET YOUR PODCASTS.

This Earth Day we are proud to support In Defense of Plants If you love plants as much as we do, we know you’ll love the podcast and blog! 

Prairie Moon Nursery COVID-19 Update

Published 2/18/21

To Our Customers & Friends,
Prairie Moon Nursery is very grateful to continue to be able to supply the joy of native plants during this time when we are cooped up at home more than usual. With the nursery industry seeing record demand for seeds and plants, we are happy to report that we have been able to process your orders with precision and speed.

The health and safety of our community continues to be at the forefront of the decisions we are making. We are still diligently following science-based recommendations and the guidance of public health officials, and are strongly encouraging all of our employees to be vaccinated as soon as it’s available for them.

Some members of our team are working from home full time. For our employees that are continuing to come out to the nursery, we require masks, practice social distancing, and sanitize our workspaces daily. We have also taken an extra step and adjusted work schedules to minimize contact across teams.

We would like to address a few questions that you may have about your native plant order:

Are you experiencing shipping delays?
No. We are continuing to ship out orders in an efficient, timely manner.

Are you experiencing a lack of inventory?
SEED:
There are no significant shortages of seed packets. With that said, harvests on perennial native plants can be variable from year to year, and bulk seed availability may be limited for some species.
PLANTS: As you may already know, it is not uncommon for Prairie Moon to sell out of potted plants before the spring shipping season arrives. Although every year we grow more and more plants with new gardeners in mind, live plants are in very high demand. Be sure to order plants as soon as possible because we are likely to sell out very early this year. Please know that we are doing all we can to get even more native plants to you by expanding our facilities in 2021.

I live near Prairie Moon and would like to pick up an order. Should I change my plans?
As a reminder, we are not a retail garden center; we are a mail-order nursery. To save shipping costs, local customers have been able to pick up orders in the past. At this time, we would prefer to ship your order to minimize the number of people coming to the nursery. If you have already arranged a plant pick up, we will contact you.

Will you be hosting Summer Tours?
With disappointment, we cancelled all 2020 summer tours due to Covid-19. We are hoping to be able to offer socially distanced, outdoor summer tours for 2021, but we feel it is too early in the year to know if that’s something we are going to be able to offer. Please visit our website for updates as the tours draw near. 

We are excited to announce free shipping

WE ARE EXCITED TO ANNOUNCE
FREE SHIPPING

Starting January 1st 2021, seed orders over $100 will ship free*

*Free shipping offer applies to retail, online seed orders, shipping within the contiguous US, that reach $100 or more. Custom Seed Mixes get bulk seed pricing so do not qualify. Eco-Grass seed always ships free so does not count toward the $100 minimum. No promo code is needed, look for the FREE shipping in your online cart. If live plants are included with your online seed order, a plant shipping fee will still apply – see plant shipping fees below.



PRAIRIE MOON SHIPPING FEES

Seed Orders Under $100$5.00
Seed Orders Over $100FREE!
Plant Orders Under $50$7.50
Plant Orders Over $5015%
Tools, Books, Eco-grassFREE!

You Can Sow Seed in the Snow!

Winter, even when snow covers your site, is a great time to sow native seed. Planting in winter gives Mother Nature time to stratify seeds through natural freeze-thaw cycles. This stratification process is needed for most wildflower seed to break dormancy and germinate in the spring. Any day through late February on which you can walk around your prepared planting site with relative ease and comfort is potentially a great day to broadcast seed.


You can sow your seed right on top of the snow, but the key is to sow on the right KIND of snow. Plant your seed on fluffy, damp, packable snow. This way, when you sow your seed it will slightly sinks into the snow. Avoid sowing seed on top of icy, crusty snow or it will blow around easily in the wind.

Winter sowing into snow also makes it easier to see where you spread the seed so you get a nice even distribution of your mix.

Don’t put off your seeding until next year; grab your mittens and go snow sowing!

Before you sow any seed, you must prepare your site. Visit our site prep guide here.

For more about how to hand sow a seed mix, see this how-to guide.

The Impact of Neonicotinoids

Neonicotinoids (neo-nih-CAH-tin-oids) are systemic chemicals, which are absorbed into the plant’s vascular system, leaving the entire plant toxic to both target and non-target insects.  Systemic chemicals affect the central nervous system of insects, resulting in paralysis and death. This class of insecticides is particularly harmful to bees as accumulated neonicotinoids are consumed by adults or stored, concentrated, and fed to developing young.

Prairie Moon has never used these insecticides and is proudly neonicotinoid-FREE.

These days we are hearing more reports of Honey Bee die-offs and Colony Collapse Disorder, though the European Honey Bee is but one species of invertebrates facing a precarious future. Native insect species all over the world are subjected to a deadly combination of stresses (with undiscovered species disappearing completely before being properly studied or understood). These stresses are widespread and stem directly from human activity. Habitat loss, fragmented ecosystems, alien organisms, industrial farming practices, climate change and the proliferation of lawns are a few major sources of invertebrate decline. Pesticides, which indiscriminately kill insects by design, pose the most immediate danger to invertebrates worldwide.

Following registration in the mid 1990’s, neonicotinoid use has grown to make this the most widely used class of insecticides in the world. While large-scale agricultural applications account for the greatest levels of cumulative harm (chronic lethal exposure), landscaping and garden use result in higher rates of death (acute lethal exposure) in non-target insects. The most noteable victims of neonicotinoid exposure are pollinator species, which perform a key role in over one-third of our food system. This disproportionate frequency of non-target insect mortality is largely due to the abundance of unregulated insecticides available in retail stores, and a lack of understanding by those who use them.

Neonicotinoids are systemic chemicals, which are absorbed into the plant’s vascular system, leaving the entire plant toxic to both target and non-target insects. Neonicotinoids exhibit long periods of toxicity, with two of the most widely used insecticides persisting in soil at toxic levels for many months and even years. Metabolites (the breakdown product of complex substances) and synergisms (combined substances which result in a greater potency than the original) could make neonicotinoids even more toxic and persistent than is already known.

The accumulation of neonicotinoids may adversely affect many invertebrates beyond those targeted through the initial application. Routes of unintended exposure can originate from spray drift, residual contact, particle exposure (from mechanized planting of treated seeds), as well as exposure through contaminated soil, nesting resources, water, pollen and nectar. Pollen and nectar contamination is especially worrisome for bees as accumulated neonicotinoids may be stored, concentrated, and fed to developing young. Adults can also suffer from chronic and acute exposure, through foraging and ingestion of toxic nectar. The sublethal effects on Honey Bees range from inhibited flight, navigation and taste, in addition to a decrease in learning and foraging ability. Sublethal effects on native bees, such as bumblebees and solitary bees, include reduced food consumption and reproduction success, decreased worker survival, reduced foraging and delayed development.

Environmental stresses are pushing native pollinators to the edge of ecological collapse, with cascading effects seen globally. You can begin helping pollinators right away by conserving and promoting native habitat, gardening with native plants and avoiding insecticide use. Your contributions are essential to curbing the decline of native pollinators and invertebrates. Over one-third of your food supply hangs in the balance.

Reference sources for information on this page were publications of the Xerces Society. View their special reports on Neonicotinoids here.

How to Prep your Site for a Native Seed Mix

SITE PREPARATION IS AN ESSENTIAL STEP TO A SUCCESSFUL NATIVE PLANTING

Proper site preparation will greatly reduce competition from undesirable species and allow for better establishment of slow-growing perennials. Most sites will require 1 full season of site preparation starting in the spring and ending in the fall. If you have a small site located in a well-manicured lawn, site preparation may be possible in a single afternoon. The most common methods are described in detail below.

Do not underestimate the weed seed bank of your soil. The weed seed bank holds the accrued deposits of dormant weed seeds that have been falling on the soil, sometimes for many years. Weed seed dormancy can be broken by even slight soil disturbance, a change in soil temperature, or a brief exposure to light. These events can cause a flush of new weeds to germinate on a site that previously appeared to be clean. Ideally, site preparation will eliminate the existing plants on site, but also spur the germination of the weed seed bank so they, too, can be eliminated. Although it is tempting to cut corners during this step, the time invested in site preparation is well spent.

SOD REMOVAL

This method is great for homeowners looking to convert part of their lawn into garden beds. A sod remover is a gas-powered, or hand-held tool that will slice off the top few inches of grass and soil. They are available to rent at many hardware and home improvement stores. Although this method is labor intensive, it can allow for very quick site preparation. Sod removal is not recommended for large areas or sites with a lot of weeds.

SMOTHERING OR SOLARIZATION:

Smothering weeds can be an effective site prep method without the use of any chemicals or special equipment. The idea behind smothering is simple; covering the soil surface for an extended period will kill unwanted plants underneath due to heat and/or lack of light. Common smothering materials include industrial-weight tarps, black or clear plastic, wood paneling, and cardboard covered with wood mulch. It is important to be sure to secure the smothering material with heavy rocks, pallets, or by burying the edges. This will prevent wind from blowing the material off and discourage tenacious plants from pushing the material up from the ground. On smaller sites, cardboard is a good approach. To find large pieces, check your local appliance store to see if they have recycling you can reuse. On larger sites, plastic from tarps or hoop houses can be used. If you live in an agricultural region, you may be able to salvage discarded plastic from local farms.

While smothering will eliminate surface plants, a large weed seed bank may remain in the soil. Once an initial smothering period has occurred, removing the cover from the site will allow weeds from the soil seed bank to germinate. Replace the cover to kill the newly germinated seedlings. This on-again off-again cycle of germination and smothering can be utilized to prepare even the weediest pastures.

Smother/Solarize Example: Timed intervals of 4 to 5 weeks “on” and 1 to 2 weeks “off” can allow multiple waves of weed seeds to germinate before being killed during the following cycle of smothering. Some weeds need to be covered for two years. Smothering a lawn takes less time; usually it can be killed in two months by a close mowing before covering.

REPEATED SHALLOW CULTIVATION:

Repeated cultivation is a good option for large sites, especially on flat, organically managed land. The key for success using this method is understanding that soil disturbance exposes seeds in the soil seed bank and is followed by more weed growth. To prepare a site with cultivation, soil disturbance must be repeated and continue until the end of the growing season.

Mechanical cultivation is usually accomplished with a tractor and a disc. Shallow discing should be timed to eliminate freshly germinated weed seedlings; once your site greens up after cultivation, disc again. Some sites may require 2 years of cultivation, particularly those with invasive or perennial weeds.

HERBICIDE:

We at Prairie Moon are proud of our organic farming legacy, but we also view the responsible and judicious use of herbicides as an effective tool for native ecosystem establishment. Always read labels on herbicide products and use caution when working with these chemicals.

Herbicide is most effective over a full growing season. Depending on the weed problem on your site, short-term herbicide use as the only form of site prep can yield less-desirable results.

Site preparation is the first step in a multi-step process. Establishing a successful native prairie from seed is a labor of love and patience. Most who have been through it will praise the process, the thrill of discovery, and the joy of transforming a space into a healthy ecosystem. For more details on the next steps check out Growing Your Prairie

YEAR 1: SITE PREP AND SEEDING

The first growing season should be dedicated to site preparation, a crucial first step to a successful planting. On this site, herbicide was applied three times spring through fall. After site preparation is complete, seed can be sown.

YEAR 2: MOWING

Keeping the site mowed to 4-8” during the first year of growth will control any remaining weeds, allow sunlight to reach the slow-growing perennials and promote strong root growth.

YEAR 3: PIONEER FLUSH

The season after planting there will only be a few native species that flower. This stage is known as the Pioneer Flush. It can take 3-5 years after planting for most perennials to bloom for the first time.

YEAR 4: DIVERSITY OF BLOOMS

As time goes on, more and more perennial wildflowers will start to bloom.

EARTH DAY 2020: WE ARE PROUD TO SUPPORT MINNESOTA WILDFLOWERS

EARTH DAY 2020: WE ARE PROUD TO SUPPORT
MINNESOTA WILDFLOWERS

We will donate 5% of profits for your online purchases now through Earth Day. Your support will help with expansion and enhancements to this non-profit website.

The mission of Minnesota Wildflowers is to educate Minnesotans on our native plants, raise awareness on threats like invasive species, and inspire people to explore our great state, appreciate its natural heritage, and become involved in preserving it.

Over 1,700 plant species and more than 16,000 high quality photos are cataloged here, with more added each week, working towards recording all 2200+ plant species in Minnesota and then branching into neighboring states, becoming a complete reference for the entire Upper Midwest.

The Minnesota Wildflowers website began as a private endeavor by Katy in 2006, in response to the poor resources available to the general public learning about plants growing wild in Minnesota.  In 2009, Peter joined as a collaborator, contributing his private collection of approximately 40,000 plant images and the two have been managing the web site together ever since.

Your unwavering support of native plants allows us to donate to
worthwhile environmental groups every year; your online purchase makes a difference!
As a business located in a small Minnesota community, as advocates for ecological integrity, and as promoters of environmental education, we are proud to support MinnesotaWildflowers.info for Earth Day 2020.

DO YOU COLLECT YOUR OWN SEED?

For all you seed savers out there, we have thousands of misprinted empty packets and are offering them in bundles of 50, FREE with any online order now through Earth Day.
Packets are 4.75″ x 3.25″ with seal tape. Limit 4 bundles (200 qty) per customer. U.S. customers only. Must accompany a paid product from our website.

May 6th UPDATE: We are thrilled to announce that $1,219.75 was the result! Your support will help with expansion and enhancements to this non-profit website.

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